Nawabs of Bahawalpur

Bahawalpur was a princely state, stretching along the southern bank of the Sutlej and Indus Rivers, with its capital city at Bahawalpur. The state was counted amongst the Rajputana states. In 1941, it had a population of 1,341,209, living in an area of 45,911 km² (17,494 sq mi).

The state was founded in 1802 by Nawab Mohammad Bahawal Khan II after the breakup of the Durrani Empire. His successor Nawab Mohammad Bahawal Khan III signed the state's first subsidiary alliance with the British on 22 February 1833, guaranteeing the internal rule of the Nawab under British suzerainty. The alliance meant British control of Bahawalpur's external relations, but the state was never a British possession and until the Partition of India in 1947 was ruled by its own Nawabs. After one century of such relations, they were dissolved by the departure of the British, when the state opted to accede to the new dominion of Pakistan, with effect from 7 October 1947. It was merged into the province of West Pakistan on 14 October 1955.

History
The Abbasi tribe from whom the ruling family of Bahawalpur belong, claim descent from the Abbasid Caliphs. The tribe came from Sindh to Bahawalpur and assumed independence during the decline of the Durrani Empire. The mint at Bahawalpur was opened in 1802 by Nawab Muhammad Bahawal Khan II with the permission of Shah Mahmud of Kabul. Upon the rise of Ranjit Singh, the Nawab, Muhammad Bahawal Khan III, made several unsuccessful appeals to the British for protection. However as part of the 1809 Treaty of Lahore, Ranjit Singh was confined to the right bank of the Sutlej. The first treaty with Bahawalpur was negotiated in 1833, the year after the treaty with Ranjit Singh for regulating traffic on the Indus. It secured the independence of the Nawab within his own territories, and opened up the traffic on the Indus and Sutlej. The political relations of Bahawalpur with the paramount power, as at present existing, are regulated by a treaty made in October, 1838, when arrangements were in progress for the restoration of Shah Shuja to the Kabul throne.

During the first Afghan War, the Nawab assisted the British with supplies and allowing passage and in 1847-8 he co-operated actively with Sir Herbert Edwardes in the expedition against Multan. For these services he was rewarded by the grant of the districts of Sabzalkot and Bhung, together with a life-pension of a lakh. On his death a dispute arose regarding succession. He was succeeded by his third son, whom he had nominated in place of his eldest son. The new ruler was, however, deposed by his elder brother, and obtained asylum in British territory, with a pension from the Bahawalpur revenues; he broke his promise to abandon his claims, and was confined in the Lahore fort, where he died in 1862.

In 1863 and 1866 insurrections broke out against the Nawab who successfully crushed the rebellions; but in March 1866, the Nawab died suddenly, not without suspicion of having been poisoned, and was succeeded by his son, Nawab Sadiq Muhammad Khan IV, a boy of four. After several endeavours to arrange for the administration of the country without active interference on the part of the Government, it was found necessary, on account of disorganization and disaffection, to place the principality in British hands. In 1879, the Nawab was invested with full powers, with the advice and assistance of a council of six members. During the Afghan campaigns (1878–80) the Nawab placed the entire resources of his State at the disposal of the British Indian Government, and a contingent of his troops was employed in keeping open communications, and in guarding the Dera Ghazi Khan frontier. On his death in 1899 he was succeeded by Muhammad Bahawal Khan V, who attained his majority in 1900, and was invested with full powers in 1903. The Nawab of Bahawalpur was entitled to a salute of 17 guns.
Bahawalpur House in Delhi is now home to the National School of Drama.

Languages
Saraiki was the most commonly spoken language of the state. English was the official language whereas Urdu was widely understood/spoken.

Rulers of Bahawalpur
The rulers of Bahawalpur were Abbasids who came from Shikarpur and Sukkur and captured the areas that became Bahawalpur State. They took the title of Amir until 1740, when the title changed to Nawab Amir. Although the title was abolished in 1955 by the Government of Pakistan, the current head of the House of Bahawalpur (Salah ud-Din Muhammad Khan) is referred to as the Amir.


From 1942, the Nawabs were assisted by Prime Ministers.

Tenure
Nawab Amir of Bahawalpur
1690–1702
Bahadur Khan II
1702–1723
Mobarak Khan I
1723 - 11 April 1746
Sadeq Mohammad Khan I
11 April 1746 – 
2 June 1750
Mohammad Bahawal Khan I
12 June 1750 – 
14 June 1772
Mobarak Khan II
4 June 1772 – 
13 August 1809
Mohammad Bahawal Khan II
13 August 1809 – 
17 April 1826
Sadeq Mohammad Khan II
17 April 1826 – 
19 October 1852
Mohammad Bahawal Khan III
19 October 1852 – 
20 February 1853
Sadeq Mohammad Khan III
20 February 1853 – 
3 October 1858
Fath Mohammad Khan
3 October 1858 –
25 March 1866
Mohammad Bahawal Khan IV
25 March 1866 –
14 February 1899
Sadeq Mohammad Khan IV
14 February 1899 –
15 February 1907
Mohammad Bahawal Khan V
15 February 1907 –
14 October 1955
Sadeq Mohammad Khan V
14 October 1955
State of Bahawalpur abolished
  
Tenure
Prime Minister of Bahawalpur
1942–1947
Sir Richard Marsh Crofton
1948–1952
John Dring
1952 - 14 October 1955
A.R. Khan
14 October 1955
State of Bahawalpur abolished

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