Saturday, 7 April 2012

History of Uch Sharif (An Ancient City of the World), Bahawalpur, Pakistan



Jahaniyan Jahangasht

Makhdoom Jahaniyan Jahangasht مخدوم سید جہانیاں جہانگشت نقوی البخاری (b 1308- d 1384) was a famous Sufi saint from the South Asia. His descendants are known as Bukhari and are a prominent lineage of Suhrawardi Saadat. Makhdoom was born on 19 January 1308 AD (14 Shaban 707 AH) in Uch near Bahawalpur. His father, Syed Ahmed Kabir, was the youngest son of Syed Jalaluddin Bukhari, who came to the South Asia in 630 AH (1232 AD) from Bukhara (the capital of the Bukhara Province (viloyat) of Uzbekistan).

Name
Like his grandfather, his actual name was Jalaluddin, but due to his extensive travelling he acquired the title of "Jahangasht", meaning "the world tourer".

Early life
He completed his education in Uch and Multan. Since the arrival of Syed Jalaluddin Bukhari, his family had been the centre of Islamic propagation in South Asia and due to this prominent status Makhdoom was appointed Shaikh ul Islam by the king Sultan Muhammad Tughlaq (An Indian Muslim Emperor). This was a lofty appointment however, Makhdoom left the job and set out for hajj (Pilgrim to Makka) by foot which was considered a noble way to express the devotion to Allah.

Travels and acquisition of knowledge
There are numerous mythical stories of his travels circulating around and they are obviously the fantasies of his overzealous devotees. Makhdoom spent twelve years in traveling and studying. During his seven years stay in Makka he would study during the day and earn his living by writing the copies of Quran at night. He also stayed in Madina for two years where he was once given the honour of leading the prayers in Masjid al Nabawi. By the end of his travels he became a prolific scholar in the Islamic sciences and ascended to the higher pedestal of Islamic sainthood.

Relations with Feroze Shah Tughlaq
After his return to the South Asia, Makhdoom earned enormous respect in the eyes of the king, Feroz Shah Tughlaq, and developed close relations with him. This was a unique act of Makhdoom, as the saints of his time would usually distance themselves from kings.

Feroze Shah would go many miles out of his capital city to welcome Makhdoom when he would visit him every second or third year. When Makhdoom would enter the court of Feroze Shah, the King would stand up to show respect for Makhdoom and when he would leave the court the king would stand up and remain standing until Makhdoom would go out of his sight. People would give Makhdoom their requests for the king which Makhdoom would convey. The King would also offer Makhdoom presents and sums of money which Makhdoom would only accept to help the poor and needy. Makhdoom would spend all of that wealth in alms and charity.

Teachings and sainthood
Makhdoom was a Muslim saint belonging to the Suhrawardiyya Chain of Sufism. He gained profound fame throughout the South Asia. Many students would come to him for the advanced studies of Islam. Not only the students but many religious scholars and Islamic judges would also consult him for guidance. Makhdoom was a strict follower of shariat, saying that he who did not follow shariat in his speech and action could not become wali (the friend of God). He authored many books some parts of which have survived and are still a source of guidance for the posterity. 

Spreading Islam
Many tribes in Sindh, Punjab and Gujrat embraced Islam due to the efforts and teachings of Makhdoom.

Death
Makhdoom died at the age of seventy eight on 3 Feb 1384 (10 Zilhajj 785 AH). He is buried in Uch.

Mausoleum
His mausoleum in Uch is still an attraction for thousands of devotees. There is a mosque called Masjid e Hajjaj near his mausoleum. It is said that Makhdoom would pray in the same mosque. Baba Fareed ul Din Ganj Shakar and Naseerudin Chiragh Dehlvi also observed Etikaf in this mosque. Bibi Jawindi's mausoleum is a famous tourist attraction and is situated just next to the mausoleum of Makhdoom. She was the first cousin of Makhdoom being related to him as the daughter of his paternal aunt.

Descendants
Makhdoom Jahaniyan Jahangasht is the father of a large branch of Bukhari Sadaat. Hazrat Jalaluddin Hussain Makhdoom Jahanian had six Children, one daughter and five sons named: 
(1) Malik Jahan 
(2) Syed Nasiruddin Mehmood 
(3) Syed Bahauddin 
(4) Syed Mukarramuddin 
(5) Syed Hassanuddin 
(6) Syed Nooruddin

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